Lab Cat

8 May 2006

Cooling Menthol

Filed under: Food, Science — Cat @ 10:47 pm

As mentioned previously, I am interested in how food ingredients alter our taste responses and affects our perception of what we eat. Capsaicin, the “hot” ingredient of chili peppers, and piperine, from black pepper, trigger temperature and pain receptors in the mouth. Another chemical causing irritation is menthol. For sensory scientists, “irritation” and “sensitization” are not associated with causing harm, but relates to the responses including numbness, heat, cooling, burning and prickling.

These chemesthetic irritants stimulate receptors in the trigeminal (fifth (V) cranial nerve) nervous system. In particular, these sensory responses are part of the mandibular (V3) branch of the trigeminal nerve, which also serves the teeth, gums, lower lip and lower part of the face. The trigeminal receptors are exhaustive neurotransmitters so their depletion can have a significant impact the taste of further food and is a serious problem for sensory panels testing these foods [reference 1].

There is much information available on the action of “heat” producing compounds such as capsaicin. It is well known that hot spicy foods trigger both pain and temperature receptors is well known. In fact, capsaicin binds to the same receptors that would respond to heat and physical abrasion. The degree of “hotness” can also be predicted by determining its place on the Scoville scale.

The cold response is less well understood. In addition to the cold response, menthol has minor local anesthetic properties and also reducing itching and local irritations (this is known as antipruritic). Researchers studying the mechanisms have used pharmacological agents, such as menthol to learn which receptor is responsible for the cold response [reference 2]. It seems unlikely that this is the only receptor that responds to cold or cooling and it is also possible that menthol triggers other receptors due to its anesthetic properties.

Menthol has an accentuating effect; eat something containing menthol followed by a cold food; the cold food will taste even colder. Ever tried drinking orange juice after cleaning your teeth? Menthol’s behavior makes it a good ingredient in toothpaste; menthol acts as an appetite suppressant by making food less desirable. Next time you are feeling hungry; try cleaning your teeth.

It’s cool that food compounds can have this influence on our tastes. So cool that I asked YellowIbis to make a complimentary shirt to their hot like…with the structure of capsaicin and to design me a t-shirt stating: “cool as…” with the structure of menthol.

menthol shirt


I’m so excited as you too can buy this t-shirt and be cool about menthol's influences on our taste buds too.


1) Allison, A-M. & Work, T (2004) Fiery and Frosty Foods Pose Challenges in Sensory Evaluation Food Technology 58(5) 32-37.

2) McKemy, D.D. Neuhausser, W.M. & Julius, D. (2002). Identification of a cold receptor reveals a general role for TRP channels in thermosensation. Nature 416, 52-58.



  1. really interesting post. Any ideas on the evolutionary causes (if there are any) of menthol’s effects, i.e cooling and appetite supression? Are there animals that menthol affects differently (e.g birds lack capsicum receptors because their digestive tracts don’t degrade pepper seeds). ewen

    Comment by Ewen — 10 May 2006 @ 1:40 pm

  2. Ewen

    These are interesting questions. Unfortunately, I don’t really know anymore than I’ve posted. I’ve only recently become interested in the response to flavor. I’ll post more about it as I read more and understand more.

    Comment by Cat — 11 May 2006 @ 10:15 am

  3. Hi LabCat! Thanks again for thinking of us, and we thought the menthol idea was great!! Glad you like the t-shirt. Best wishes, Sara @ YellowIbis

    Comment by YellowIbis — 13 May 2006 @ 12:26 pm

  4. […] If you found my previous articles on food and taste interesting this is a good introduction. What's interesting is that it seems that our response to sweet was an important evolutionary step. Other animals aren't as sensitive to sweet tastes as humans (or primates?). For example, cats can't taste sugar, as carnivores sugar isn't an important part of their diet. We, humans, on the other hand can taste sweet both in sugar and in sweeteners and differentiate between different sugars and sweeteners. […]

    Pingback by Lab Cat » Blog Archive » Sweet tastes to sweet cat — 19 May 2006 @ 11:21 am

  5. As an undergraduate at UCL, I worked in a molecular nociception lab which raced an American group for years to isolate and clone the capsaicin receptor VR1. As you say, it’s expressed in primary sensory neurons, specifically the small diameter unmyelinated neurons which have their cell bodies in the dorsal (or posterior in humans) root ganglia. The American team pipped then at the post and put red hot chilli peppers on the cover of Nature in October 2000!

    This kind of thing would be ideal for Encephalon, one of the first neuroscience carnivals. 1st edition is on July 3rd on my blog. Click on my name to visit the homepage. Pure Pedantry over at ScienceBlogs also has a new neuro carnival on 25th June.

    Comment by The neurophilosopher — 13 Jun 2006 @ 6:11 pm

  6. Thanks for visiting. Needless to say I’m not a neuroscientist but I am fascinated by the links between taste and the brain.

    Comment by Cat — 15 Jun 2006 @ 4:04 pm

  7. […] While I was in Orlando, and particularly as I have just suffered from having a cold, I read a review article on Menthol and Related Cooling Compounds. I previously wrote about menthol as a cooling agent and when I did background reading for the earlier blog entry this seemed to be a key review but it wasn’t available to me at that time. […]

    Pingback by Lab Cat » Blog Archive » Is Menthol a Cold Treatment? — 6 Jul 2006 @ 11:15 am

  8. Drinking after eating mint

    “When I drink water after eating a mint the water feels much more cold. why is that?”

    … “I don’t understand much about the specifics, but the basic mechanism is that menthol irritates skin’s cold receptors and makes you feel cold. Quite simil…

    Trackback by "Drinking after eating mint" on Yedda - People. Sharing. Knowledge. — 13 Sep 2006 @ 9:43 am

  9. A touch of natural menthol provides a refreshing, minty taste along with a soothing, cooling sensation. Salt water gargle is recommended by family practitioners, the National Institutes of Health and the Harvard Medical School as an effective remedy for irritated throats.
    P.S: I like that shirt.

    Comment by ralph emerson — 17 Dec 2006 @ 12:47 am

  10. Menthol gives cooling sensation through skin, putting menthol structure on second skin (t-shirt) good idea, nice t-shirt

    Comment by Raja Rao Sunkishala — 4 May 2007 @ 7:48 am

  11. Menthol gives cool refreshing sensation…….I really don’t no how many will like this t-shirt…….good idea… nice t-shirt….

    Comment by Rao R — 19 Sep 2007 @ 11:20 am

  12. i have a question. how we can produce cool drinking water with a tablet.

    Comment by mali — 5 May 2009 @ 11:35 pm

  13. Blogging keeps me insane. Keep up all the positive work. I too love to blog. I found this one to be very informative

    Comment by William Sole — 8 Mar 2011 @ 11:24 pm

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